CONCEPTS TO REVIEW FROM CHEM 1151 (CHEM 105) for Chapter 10
Below are some topics from some chapters that you must know before proceeding
with this course.
Ch. 2 Atoms
- Know the elementary particles and where they are located within an atom.
- Know what an ion is.
- Know how the electrons fill the orbitals in ground state electron configurations.
- Know what the Lewis structure for an element in its ground state is and be able to draw it.
Ch. 3 Chemical Bonds
- Know the difference between ionic bonding and covalent bonding.
- Know the octet rule.
- Know what types of elements typically combine to give ionic compounds and what types typically combine to give covalent compounds.
- Know the charge on ions typically formed from elements in Columns IA, IIA and VIIA in the Periodic Table.
- Know what a molecular formula and a structural formula are.
- Know what single, double, and triple bonds are.
- Know the typical number of covalent bonds that various atoms form, especially H, C, O, S, N.
- Be able to determine the shape of a molecule from its Lewis structure. (linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, pyramidal, bent)
- Name the 4 most electronegative elements.
- Know what is meant by polar covalent bond and polar molecule.
Practice question: Which of the following molecules are polar?
NH3, H2O,CH4, CO2
Ch. 5 Gases, Liquids, and Solids
- Understand the difference in the space between molecules in a solid, liquid, and a gas.
- Know what is meant by boiling, melting.
- Understand that compounds have different boiling and melting points due to differences in the intermolecular forces, molecular weight, and shapes.
- Understand how molecular weight and shape affect boiling point. You should understand why the following have their stated boiling points:
|Molecule||Boiling Point oC|
|CH4|| -161 |
|C5H12 (n-pentane) chain-like||36.2 |
|C5H12 (dimethylpropane) spherically-shaped||9.5 |
- Know the three types of intermolecular forces and understand which is the strongest and weakest.
- London dispersion forces
- dipole-dipole interactions
- hydrogen bonds (NOT a covalent bond, but an attractive force between different molecules)
Ch. 6 Solutions and Colloids
- Know the definition of solubility.
- Understand the concept "like dissolves like."
- Know how water acts to dissolve ionic compounds.
- Know the two ways that water may dissolve covalent compounds.
- The molecule may react with water, producing charged species.
HCl + H2O --> Cl- + H3O+
- The molecule may be able to form hydrogen bonds (an intermolecular force) with water. (This makes the molecular soluble IF the molecule is fairly small.) Water can form hydrogen "bonds" to any molecule that contains an O, N, or F atom or an
O-H, N-H, or F-H bond.
Web Author: Dr. Leon L. Combs
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